Many centuries ago, even in the palaces of the European nobility, there were no glasses. For example, the famous French knight Bayard, who lived only about five hundred years ago, owned a gloomy castle. This knight was engaged in a constant war with his neighbors, and the rest of the time he hunted or arranged feasts.

Gloomy Medieval Castle
Gloomy Medieval Castle
At that time torches were lit in the castle. In their light, golden weapons hung on the walls shone brightly. Expensive wine played and foamed in crystal goblets. Servants served fruit dishes. Heavy furniture, silk fabrics adorned the gloomy home of the knight. But, despite all the wealth, the castle was uncomfortable, cold.

This castle was built of large stones. On the windows were iron bars. There were no glasses. From the inside, the windows were closed with heavy shutters, the wind was blowing through the chinks. They had to stoke fireplaces for whole days, and sleep at night without undressing or covering themselves with thick feather beds. And all this because the windows of the stone castle did not have such a simple thing as glass...

In the palace of the Duchess of Berry, a great festival was expected: the mistress herself, who had been absent for a long time, had to come. Servants were whipped off feet. They cleaned carpets, rubbed golden candlesticks to shine, swept away dust from ancient portraits.

First Windows
First Windows
“But it is very cold in the ducal rooms!” - the old maid was worried. - Something must close windows. And then an urgent document was drawn up, in which the following was written:

“For lack of glass craftsmanship, it is urgent to make frames with a waxed canvas for the windows of the palace of the Duchess of the Berry.” This document is dated 1413.

And for the palace of another duke, Burgundy, in 1467  "oiled paper windows" were ordered. Now it seems surprising to us: in the ducal palace, the windows are sealed with paper! But they had to somehow protect themselves from the cold and make so that at least a little light penetrated into the rooms.